The aggressive behavior of ants that protect plants from herbivores in exchange for rewards such as shelter or food is thought to be an important form of biotic defense against herbivory, particularly in tropical systems. To date, however, no one has compared the defensive responses of different ant taxa associated with the same plant species, and attempted to relate these differences to longer-term efficacy of ant defense. We used experimental cues associated with herbivory—physical damage and extracts of chemical volatiles from leaf tissue—to compare the aggressive responses of two ant species obligately associated with the Amazonian myrmecophyte Tococa bullifera (Melastomataceae). We also conducted a colony removal experiment to quantify the level of resistance from herbivores provided to plants by each ant species. Our experiments demonstrate that some cues eliciting a strong response from one ant species elicited no response by the other. For cues that do elicit responses, the magnitude of these responses can vary interspecifically.